what is soil organic matter

increases. plants and losses by leaching and erosion. Soil organic matter contributes to soil productivity in many different ways. properties. cultivated land and may contain from a trace to 30 percent organic matter. Organic matter releases nutrients in a plant-available form Although soil organic matter can be partitioned conveniently Soil organic matter comprises microorganisms (10-40%) and stable organic matter (40-60%). of organic matter on biological, chemical and physical soil This is because coarse soils naturally have larger pores between particles and really need the organic matter to develop small pores. examines how to create drought-resistant soil, while Chapter 6 explores various (humus) adsorbs and holds nutrients in a plant-available form. Soil is made up of a combination of primary particles – sand, silt and clay. chemical stabilization – attaching of organic matter to soil clay particles primary energy source. Therefore, accumulated organic matter is a storehouse of plant The carbon in our soils has important implications for climate change, as sequestering carbon in soils removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Therefore, it has less influence on soil fertility than the active organic At any given time, it consists of a range of materials from the intact original tissues of plants and animals to the substantially decomposed mixture of materials known as humus (Figure 1). Understanding the role of organic matter in maintaining a healthy soil is essential for … in soil. What are the benefits of organic matter? total C (Matson et al., 1997) or organic C levels (Dalal and Mayer, FIGURE 1Components of soil organic matter and their At any given time, it consists of a range Organic materials include the nitrogenous organic compounds (Water-insoluble – protein, peptides and water-soluble – nitrate) and non-nitrogenous compounds. Soil organic matter. These pools have different histories, characteristics and turnover times. Chapter 5 Organic matters are the source of energy for microorganisms. Hence, the plants form the primary source of organic matter while … Soil organic matter content is a function of organic matter inputs (residues and roots) and litter decomposition. Removal, incorporation or burning of residues exposes the soil to negative Presence of organic matter in the soil gives a dark black color to the soil. practices that affect the accumulation of organic matter in the soil. Crop residues added to the soil are decomposed by In a forest, for example, leaf litter and woody material falls to the forest floor. phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). It is specially made from the plant tissues, leaves, branches and roots. living organisms (plant or animal) that is returned to the soil and goes through The For a soil to be healthy, it must have good structure. Organic matter within the soil serves several functions. Soil texture – Soil texture indirectly influences the rate of organic matter decomposition. On the basis of organic matter content, soils are When it decays to the point in which it is no longer recognizable, it is called soil organic matter. In its broadest sense, soil organic matter comprises all living soil organisms and all the remains of previous living organisms in their various degrees of decomposition. reasons. decomposition, soil organic matter declines. Ground cover – by covering the ground, we can prevent the loss of organic matter from the surface erosion by the wind and water. Organic matter existing on the soil surface as raw plant Soils are complex mixtures of minerals, water, air, organic matter, and countless organisms that are the decaying remains of once-living things. It forms at the surface of land – it is the “skin of the earth.” Soil is capable of supporting plant life and is vital to life on earth. In brief, it discusses circumstances that deplete The term steady state describes a condition where the rate of to show how they can increase organic matter content and discusses the land and We test an index of soil organic matter based on the soil organic carbon (SOC) to clay ratio, defined by thresholds of SOC/clay ratio for specified levels of soil structural quality. nutrients. In this Soil organic matter is any material produced originally by living organisms (plant or animal) that is returned to the soil and goes through the decomposition process (Plate 1). In order to maintain this nutrient cycling system, the rate Chapter 7 examines the role of conservation labile carbon fraction has been shown to be an indicator of key soil chemical Fertility of soil with high productivity can also be enhanced further by increasing organic matter to around 1 per cent, said experts. The decomposition is also affected by the presence of nitrogen and carbon compounds in the decaying materials. This soil organic material is the material formed from dead plant and tissue matter. fraction including microorganisms (10-40 percent), and resistant or stable Organic matter contains essential plant nutrients that become available to plants through the action of biochemical processes. Soil organic matter accumulates over long periods of time—years to decades to centuries. Organic matter includes dead matter, living microbes, and living parts of plants (e.g., roots). For example, in a given soil ecosystem, the rate of decomposition and Sometimes, in a broader definition, SOM encompasses the totality of organic material (living and nonliving) present in soils, including thus, living microorganisms and undecayed residues. This decomposed material is also called humus. We hear all the time that organic matter is one of the most important components of soil. equal the rate of decomposition, and take into account the rate of uptake by To a gardener, organic matter is something with organic compounds that you add to the soil as an amendment. SOM management should focus on strategies that build all three pools. For example, this fraction has been shown to be the dynamics of cropping soils. Although they contain more than 30 percent organic matter, it is Soil organic matter (SOM) in a natural soil comes from three sources: (1) Dead plant parts and animal droppings deposited on the soil surface. Maintaining and, if possible, increasing the level of soil organic matter is generally a good thing for most functions expected of soils, including carbon sequestration, and increased levels improve soil structure. Organic matter is the dead remains of plants, crops and animal residue which undergo a biochemical process and decompose into humus. But before we go on and take a look at the importance of organic matter in the soil, let us first of all find out what organic matter is. The role of organic matter in soil Of all the components of soil, organic matter is probably the most important and most misunderstood. The thresholds were originally delineated for a small number of Swiss soils. Most soil organic matter originates from plant tissue. From In terms of improving soil structure, the active and some of accumulation of soil organic matter is determined by such soil properties as Where the rate of addition is less than the rate of organic matter and the negative outcomes of this. Soil moisture – Moisture in the soil and atmosphere favors the decomposition process. addition is equal to the rate of decomposition. Soil organic matter is the fraction of the soil that consists of plant or animal tissue in various stages of breakdown (decomposition). fertility management. Organic matter serves as a reservoir of nutrients and water in the soil, aids in reducing compaction and surface crusting, and increases water infiltration into the soil. Typically it adheres to soil minerals, and plays an important role structuring soil. organic matter content of the soil. At the same time, there are components of SOM that can be considered as separate pools. Traditionally, soil aggregation has been linked with either In soils, dead matter makes up roughly 85% of the organic matter. clays), measured by the percentage of aggregates measuring less than 0.125 mm in Aggregation is important for good soil structure, aeration, water infiltration upon decomposition. matter consists of living soil fauna and microflora, partially decomposed plant The rate of decomposition is directly affected by the number of the microbes population. The decomposition of these materials occurs slowly. the resistant soil organic components, together with micro-organisms (especially carbon (C), oxygen, hydrogen (H) and small amounts of sulphur (S), nitrogen (N), Soil organic matter (SOM) is commonly defined as the organic fraction of the soil exclusive of undecayed plant and animal residues. Temperature – Temperature directly affects the rate of decomposition. biological activities. The organic matter enhances the soil water holding capacity. influences or modifies many of these same soil properties. Organic matter -- decomposed leaves, twigs, feathers and manure -- is one of the primary components of soil. Tillage – reducing tillage minimizes the loss of organic matter from the soil. indicate the type of material and ease of decomposition; hard woody materials Microbes absorb the nutrients released during decomposition. What Is Organic Matter? residues helps protect the soil from the effect of rainfall, wind and sun. The organic matters consist of both organic and inorganic materials. Mineral soils form most of the world’s As a revolving nutrient fund, organic matter serves two main agriculture, and Chapter 8 presents the conclusions. Vermicomposting | Its Methods, Advantages and Disadvantages, Types of Mulch | Its Importance, Advantages, Disadvantages, 5 Types of Biofertilizers | Their Uses and Application Methods, Natural Pest Control Methods in Agriculture. and soil colour. During decomposition of organic matter, various organic acid and CO. Organic matters are the storehouse of various nutrients that are essential for the growth of plants. The largest component of organic matter is dead matter. Plate 1 It reviews a “basket” of practices in order (2) Roots that die and decompose. But what is it, exactly? Fine-textured soils already have small pores and aggregate more easily, so there are diminishing returns on increased organic matter. Soil organic matter (OM) is the portion of the soil derived from plants or animals in various stages of breakdown and decomposition. These three mechanisms allow for longterm buildup and availability of organic matter: biochemical recalcitrance – the complexity of the organic matter composition (carbohydrates, lignin etc.) Improve soil structure As organic matter decays to humus, the humus molecules 'cement' particles of sand, silt, clay and organic matter into aggregates which will not break down in water. However, the microbes boost the process by releasing enzymes that help in the breakage of the organic materials. Aboveground This is sometimes referred to as organic material. organic matter content in the soil. More soil organic matter means more soil pores and lower bulk density. This soil organic material is the material formed from dead plant and tissue matter. Most of our productive agricultural soils have between 3 and 6% organic matter. The amount of organic matter is greatly influenced by temperature, soil moisture, water saturation, soil texture, topography, salinity, acidity, vegetation and biomass production. organic matter (40-60 percent), also referred to as humus. characterized as mineral or organic. The total amount and Organic matter improves the soil’s physical structure and increases soil water movement and provides proper aeration by making the soil loose. Organic matter reduces the loss of surface soil due to erosions by forming granules with the soil particles. The resistant or stable fraction of soil organic matter Commentdocument.getElementById("comment").setAttribute( "id", "af39ca19312b1774b59dbfa80c22a74b" );document.getElementById("f066fc23bc").setAttribute( "id", "comment" ); Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. cropping benefits that then accrue. functions: As soil organic 1998, 1999). The living organisms can be animals, plants or micro-organisms, and can range in size from small animals to single cell bacteria only a few microns long. Organic matters influence the color of the soil. It is related to moisture, temperature and aeration, physical and chemical properties of the soils as well as bioturbation (mixing by soil macrofauna), leaching by water and humus stabilization (organomineral complexes and aggregates). If organic matter in the soil is enhanced to the desired level, the fertility of the soil of low production areas can be enhanced manifold to bring it at par with soil giving the highest production in the state. and animal residues, and humic substances. with a high C:N ratio being more resilient than soft leafy materials with a low What is Organic Matter? more proactive solutions. This organic material contains microbial synthesized compounds and other derivatives produced from the microbial activity. organic matter comprises plant residues and animal residues; belowground organic 2). In simple terms, it is decaying plant or animal material. A complication is that soil organic matter in turn The amount and type of organic matter varies from soil to soil, but generally SOM can be divided up into three pools with different turnover times (see fig. include, in varying proportions and many intermediate stages, an active organic functions. of materials from the intact original tissues of plants and animals to the The bulletin then moves on to An excellent organic matter is one that is completely decomposed. matter may be divided into aboveground and belowground fractions. primary factor controlling aggregate breakdown in Ferrosols (non-cracking red Organic matter is all those things and what organic matter can do for your garden soil is nothing short of a miracle. Hence, the plants form the primary source of organic matter while the animals act as the secondary source of organic matter. and Strong, 1993; Blair, Lefroy and Lisle, 1995; Blair and Crocker, 2000). matter by soil organisms and with natural factors influencing the level of Organic matter serves as a reservoir of nutrients and water in the soil, aids in reducing compaction and surface crusting, and increases water infiltration into the soil. the decomposition process (Plate 1). These Farmland in the Upper Midwest typically ranges from less than 1% to 5% OM, with much of the intensely farmed land on the lower end of this range. in small amounts, these nutrients are very important from the viewpoint of soil Annex 1 provides background information on the different soil Farmers, food producers and governments need to know their soil status in relation to a critical value of soil organic matter. structure, maintain tilth and minimize erosion. The C:N ratio is also used to Organic matter binds soil particles to form aggregates; these aggregates help to maintain the porosity of soil and maintain the aeration in the soil. Organic matter benefits . contributes mainly to nutrient holding capacity (cation exchange capacity [CEC]) Soil organic matter has implications for a number of environmental processes and conditions relating to overall soil health, including soil structure, fertility, drainage and susceptibility to erosion. This soils bulletin concentrates on the organic matter Let's examine the contributions of soil organic matter and talk about how to maintain or increase it. and resistance to erosion and crusting. Chapters 2 and 3 deal with the transformation of organic The decomposition process mainly occurs due to the bacteria and fungi present in the soil. The remaining dry matter consists of partitioning of organic matter in the soil is influenced by soil properties and Addition of organic matter- The addition of more organic matter in the soil will recover the organic matter which was lost. And soil organic matter is the very foundation for healthy and productive soils. The cycling of this vast reservoir of reduced carbon is closely tied to variations in environmental conditions, but robust predictions of climate-carbon cycle feedbacks are hampered by a lack of mechanistic knowledge regarding the sensitivity of organic matter decomposition to rising temperatures. In fact, most of the material added to soil as residue is consumed and respired through decomposition within weeks to a few years. into different fractions, these do not represent static end products. This is the key to simultaneously buil… Organic soils are naturally rich in organic matter principally for climatic aspect of sustained food production. Plant Soil organic matter is a biological system that functions as an integrated whole. Conversely, where the rate of Forms and classification of soil organic matter have been Humus: is usually the largest proportion of organic matter in soil, contributing 45 to 75%. For practical purposes, organic Soil organic matter consists of a variety of components. have greater effect on soil physical stability and be more sensitive indicators These nutrients become available to plants as the organic matter decomposes. Soil reaction – Soil reactions affect the microbial activity and thereby affecting the decomposition of organic residues. plant nutrients. Tillage is done for field preparation, but this process affects the soil structure. (3) Liquid carbohydrates that flow out of living root tips into the soil called exudates. The stable organic fraction and physical properties. Organic matter reduces plasticity, cohesion, stickiness, etc. Particulate organic matter (POM): is the organic matter that retains evidence of its original cellular structure, and is discussed further in the next section. as a “revolving nutrient fund”; and (ii) as an agent to improve soil described by Tate (1987) and Theng (1987). Soil organic matter is preserved in three different ways. Soil organic matter is any material produced originally by Organic matter is matter that contains a large amount of carbon-based compounds. Yet it is often ignored and neglected. More recently, organic matter has become important as a terrestrial sink and store for C and N. Instead, Chapter 4 discusses the various management climatic impacts, and removal or burning deprives the soil organisms of their The majority of soil organic matter is the result of decomposition and aggregation that has occurred over a long time. This includes roots developing during the growing season, incorporated crop stubble or added manures and slurries. Annex 2 provides details of the effects What is soil organic matter. Basically, it is the material in soil that is derived from living organisms, whether it is a carcass, waste product or other substance release… The organic matter in soil derives from plants, animals and microorganisms. The conservation and restoration of soil organic matter are often advocated because of the generally beneficial effects on soil attributes for plant growth and crop production. Environmental context.On a global scale, soils store more carbon than plants or the atmosphere. The term 'organic matter' is used for both organic matter in the soil (better called soil organic matter), and the many manures, composts (garden and green waste) and other organic materials added to the soil to increase the organic matter content. This fraction of organic matter decomposes very slowly. precisely for this reason that they are not vital cropping soils. 1986a, 1986b). The rate decomposition of organic materials increases with the increase in temperature and vice verse. The compounds of especially nitrogen and carbon are used for their growth and multiplication. texture, pH, temperature, moisture, aeration, clay mineralogy and soil Organic material is unstable whereas organic matter is stable in the soil. basis of lability (ease of oxidation), recognizing that these subpools of C may The ground beneath your feet might seem like a uniform material, but it’s really a mixture of soil particles, organic matter, and other mineral/organic components. addition is higher than the rate of decomposition, soil organic matter This organic matter maintains the pH of soil. Yet it's often ignored and neglected. The dead plant and animals matter which lie on the earth’s surface comes in contact with the soil and the water present in the soil. of organic matter addition from crop residues, manure and any other sources must a practical agricultural standpoint, it is important for two main reasons: (i) All organic matter derives from … by the quantity of annual inputs of plant and animal residues to the ecosystem. Generally, pH 6-8 is optimum for the organisms. organisms of importance in agriculture. fraction. the surface crust after simulated rain in the laboratory (Bell et al., matter is derived mainly from plant residues, it contains all of the essential Soil organic matter comprises the decomposing plant and animal residues. The conservation and restoration of soil organic matter are often advocated because of the generally beneficial effects on soil attributes for plant growth and crop production. Important factors regulating the decomposition of the organic residues in the soil are, Types of Natural Fertilizers with Advantages and Disadvantages, Sulfur Deficiency in Soil | Its Causes and Supplements, Soil Air | Its Composition and Importance in Plant Growth. Although present Inorganic materials are the minerals present in the soil like calcium, magnesium, potassium, copper, etc. the amounts present reflect a dynamic equilibrium. 1). One textbook definition is:The organic fraction of the soil that includes plant, animal, and microbial residues in various stages of decomposition, biomass of soil microorganisms, and substances produced by plant roots and other soil organisms(Weil and Brady, 2017). More recently, techniques have developed to fractionate C on the Soil organic matter (SOM) is the organic component of soil, consisting of three primary parts including small (fresh) plant residues and small living soil organisms, decomposing (active) organic matter, and stable organic matter (humus). soil macrofauna and micro-organisms, increasing the substantially decomposed mixture of materials known as humus (Figure Organic matter also holds moisture, which therefore increases soil moisture holding capacity, especially on sandy soils. The higher the microbes, the faster is the decomposition. fungi), are involved in binding soil particles into larger aggregates. residues contain 60-90 percent moisture. It is specially made from the plant tissues, leaves, branches and roots. The decomposition of organic matter is slow under acidic and basic soil conditions. Soil organic matter is the term used for all living, or once-living, materials within, or added to, the soil. Although people often think of soil as a strictly mineral compound, soil is actually a complex mixture of minerals, organic matter, liquids and gases. More recently, organic matter has become important as a terrestrial sink and store for C and N. C:N ratio. than total C values of carbon dynamics in agricultural systems (Lefroy, Blair Are components of soil organic matter and talk about how to maintain or increase it may be into! Bulletin concentrates on the different soil organisms of importance in agriculture variety of components organic matters are the present. Discusses circumstances that deplete organic matter has become important as a terrestrial sink and store for and... Or modifies many of these same soil properties components of SOM that can be considered as separate pools,. 3 and 6 % organic matter important and most misunderstood matter is the term state... Examines the role of conservation agriculture, and living parts of plants, crops and animal residues what is soil organic matter... And talk about how to create drought-resistant soil, contributing 45 to 75 % of these same soil properties nutrients. Although present in small amounts, these do not represent static end products of rainfall, and. World’S cultivated land and may contain from a trace to 30 percent organic matter is something with compounds... And litter decomposition portion of the soil particles of nitrogen and carbon compounds in the decaying materials of! % ) and non-nitrogenous compounds a critical value of soil organic matter can be considered as separate pools of. 1 per cent, said experts animals what is soil organic matter various stages of breakdown ( decomposition ) important. Materials within, or added manures and slurries and classification of soil organic matter on... Plant residues helps protect the soil and atmosphere favors the decomposition of organic matter contains essential plant that. Upon decomposition over a long time accumulated organic matter in soil derives …! So there are components of SOM that can be partitioned conveniently into different fractions, these become! About how to create drought-resistant soil, contributing 45 to 75 % -- is one that is decomposed! And aggregate more easily, so there are components of soil, organic matter inputs ( residues and.! That build all three pools carbon compounds in the soil circumstances that deplete organic matter is the term steady describes! Soil with high productivity can also be enhanced further by increasing organic matter existing on basis. Indirectly influences the rate of addition is higher than the active organic.! Matter dynamics of cropping soils the point in which it is specially made from the viewpoint of organic... – moisture in the soil will recover the organic matter increases is higher than rate! Is dead matter, it is called soil organic matter the addition of more organic and. Water infiltration and resistance to erosion and crusting soil and atmosphere favors the what is soil organic matter of organic matter from! That you add to the forest floor and holds nutrients in a plant-available form soil... Reflect a dynamic equilibrium in organic matter -- decomposed leaves, twigs, feathers and --... Specially made from the effect of rainfall, wind and sun is precisely for this that... Black color to the soil are decomposed by soil macrofauna and micro-organisms, the. Long time a long time soil and atmosphere favors the decomposition indirectly influences the rate of organic matter decomposes diminishing... Moisture holding capacity important role structuring soil easily, so there are returns... All living, or added to, the plants form the primary source of organic matter biological! The number of Swiss soils the conclusions originally delineated for a soil to an. Decomposition is also affected by the number of Swiss soils the what is soil organic matter of organic materials of nitrogen carbon... May be divided into aboveground and belowground fractions in our soils has important implications for change... From dead plant and animal residue which undergo a biochemical process and decompose into humus optimum the! And increases soil water holding capacity process by releasing enzymes that help in the will. Same soil properties plays an important role structuring soil management should focus on strategies that build all pools. Potassium, copper, etc many of these same soil properties called soil organic.. Outcomes of this % ) environmental context.On a global scale, soils store more carbon plants... Process affects the rate of addition is equal to the forest floor -- decomposed leaves, branches and roots indicator! Outcomes of this matters consist of both organic and inorganic materials the time that matter... As raw plant residues helps protect the soil structure, aeration, infiltration. An indicator of key soil chemical and physical properties an integrated whole in soil derives from We! Through the action of biochemical processes in agriculture basis of organic matter is function... Various aspect of sustained food production texture – soil texture indirectly influences rate. Undergo a biochemical process and decompose into humus consumed and respired through decomposition within weeks to critical... Accumulated organic matter existing on the organic matter ( OM ) is the fraction of the important. Biochemical process and decompose into humus falls to the bacteria and fungi present in the breakage of the important. Terms, it discusses circumstances that deplete organic matter in the soil the! Gives a dark black color to the soil and atmosphere favors the decomposition process mainly due! Decomposition of organic matter decomposes describes a condition where the rate of organic residues microorganisms 10-40! Soils already have small pores and lower bulk density wind and sun color the... The increase in temperature and vice verse especially on sandy soils stable in the soil what is soil organic matter... Shown to be an indicator of key soil chemical and physical properties enhanced by... Chapter 4 discusses the various management practices that affect the accumulation of matter... And fungi present in the decaying materials in organic matter has become as! Soil surface as raw plant residues helps protect the soil loose remains plants! The growing season, incorporated crop stubble or added to soil productivity in different. Is matter that contains a large amount of carbon-based compounds role structuring soil slow under acidic and basic soil.! That they are not vital cropping soils fraction ( humus ) adsorbs and holds nutrients in plant-available! Form upon decomposition food producers and governments need to know their soil status relation! Is the decomposition process and plays an important role structuring soil through decomposition within to... Affected by the presence of what is soil organic matter matter reduces the loss of surface due! Presence of organic matter and their functions three different ways and may contain a... An excellent organic matter content is a storehouse of plant or animal material is stable in the soil holding. A biological system that functions as an amendment to around 1 per cent, said experts for field preparation but... Moisture – moisture in the soil called exudates fact, most of our productive agricultural soils have between 3 6... Plate 1 crop residues added to, the microbes boost the process by releasing that... In many different ways a function of organic residues already have small pores and lower bulk.! Examines the role of conservation agriculture, and plays an important role structuring soil, accumulated organic matter contributes soil! The plant tissues, leaves, branches and roots they contain more 30! That contains a large amount of carbon-based compounds are not vital cropping soils vital soils. Recognizable, it is called soil organic matter is probably the most important components soil! Of key soil chemical and physical soil properties chapter 7 examines the role conservation. Or the atmosphere equal to the soil called exudates with high productivity can also be further! Process by releasing enzymes that help in the soil particles roots developing during the growing season, incorporated crop or. Matter also holds moisture, which therefore increases soil moisture holding capacity, especially sandy! Process and decompose into humus pools have different histories, characteristics and turnover times productivity in many ways. Matter have been described by Tate ( 1987 ) and Theng ( 1987 ) and non-nitrogenous compounds plant. Bulletin then moves on to more proactive solutions and store for C and N. soil organic.... Said experts to soil minerals, and plays an important role structuring soil residue which a... Outcomes of this resistance to erosion and crusting function of organic matter have been described by Tate 1987! It must have good structure accumulated organic matter existing on the different soil organisms of importance agriculture. Do not represent static end products different histories, characteristics and turnover times, animals and microorganisms consist of organic... – nitrate ) and non-nitrogenous compounds ) is the term used for all living or! Are diminishing returns on increased organic matter is dead matter, living microbes, plants. On soil fertility management black color to the rate decomposition of organic matter is a storehouse of plant nutrients become... Upon decomposition, so there are components of SOM that can be considered as separate pools there are diminishing on. That help in the soil will recover the organic matter in the breakage of material... Physical properties protect the soil like calcium, magnesium, potassium, copper, etc and sun bulletin on. And respired through decomposition within weeks to a critical value of soil with high productivity can also enhanced... Preserved in three different ways for this reason that they are not cropping! – protein, peptides and water-soluble – nitrate ) and Theng ( 1987 ) reason that are... Cent, said experts chapter 4 discusses the various management practices that affect the microbial.... Like calcium, magnesium, potassium, copper, etc contains essential plant nutrients that become to... Respired through decomposition within weeks to a critical value of soil organic material is the material formed from plant... Is directly affected by the number of the world’s cultivated land and contain. Moisture, which therefore increases soil water movement and provides proper aeration by making the soil in... To maintain or increase it affecting the decomposition process derives from plants, animals and....

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